|Publications on this gene:|
Microbiology 2003 Sep ; Pt 9(149):2317-29.
The Bacillus subtilis YufLM two-component system regulates the expression of the malate transporters MaeN (YufR) and YflS, and is essential for utilization of malate in minimal medium.
Tanaka K ,Kobayashi K ,Ogasawara N ,
Department of Bioinformatics and Genomics, Graduate School of Information Science, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5, Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0101, Japan.
The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis has a complete set of enzymes for the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and can grow aerobically using most of the TCA cycle intermediates (malate, fumarate, succinate and citrate) as a sole carbon source. The B. subtilis genome sequence contains three paralogous two-component regulatory systems, CitST, DctSR and YufLM. CitST and DctSR activate the expression of a transporter of the Mg(2+)-citrate complex (CitM) and a fumarate and succinate transporter (DctP), respectively. These findings prompted an investigation of whether the YufL sensor and its cognate regulator, YufM, play a role in malate uptake. This paper reports that the YufM regulator shows in vitro binding to the promoter region of two malate transporter genes, maeN and yflS, and is responsible for inducing their expression in vivo. It was also found that inactivation of the yufM or maeN genes resulted in bacteria that could not grow in a minimal salts medium containing malate as a sole carbon source, indicating that the induction of the MaeN transporter by the YufM regulator is essential for the utilization of malate as a carbon source. Inactivation of the yufL gene resulted in the constitutive expression of MaeN. This expression was suppressed by reintroduction of the kinase domain of YufL, indicating that the YufL sensor is required for proper signal detection and signalling specificity. The authors propose that a phosphatase activity of YufL plays an important role in the YufLM two-component regulatory system. The studies reported here have revealed that members of a set of paralogous two-component regulatory systems in B. subtilis, CitST, DctSR and YufLM, are involved in a related function--uptake (and metabolism) of the TCA cycle intermediates--but with distinct substrate specificities.
Publication Type: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't;
J Biol Chem 2000 Sep 29; 39(275):30287-92.
Bacillus subtilis YqkI is a novel malic/Na+-lactate antiporter that enhances growth on malate at low protonmotive force.
Wei Y ,Guffanti AA ,Ito M ,Krulwich TA ,
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA.
Bacillus subtilis yheL encodes a Na(+)/H(+) antiporter, whereas its paralogue, yqkI, encodes a novel antiporter that achieves a simultaneous Na(+)/H(+) and malolactate antiport. B. subtilis yufR, a control in some experiments, encodes a Na(+)/malate symporter. YqkI complemented a malate transport mutant of Escherichia coli if Na(+) and lactate were present. YheL conferred Na(+) uptake capacity on everted membrane vesicles from an antiporter-deficient E. coli mutant that was consistent with a secondary Na(+)/H(+) antiport, but YqkI-dependent Na(+) uptake depended on intravesicular malate and extravesicular lactate. YqkI-dependent lactate uptake depended on intravesicular malate and extravesicular Na(+). YqkI mediated an electroneutral exchange, which is proposed to be a malic(-2)-2H(+) (or fully protonated malate)/Na(+)-lactate(-1) antiport. Because the composite YqkI-mediated exchanges could be driven by gradients of the malate-lactate pair, this transporter could play a role in growth of B. subtilis on malate at low protonmotive force. A mutant with a disruption of yqkI exhibited an abrupt arrest in the mid-logarithmic phase of growth on malate when low concentrations of protonophore were present. Thus growth of B. subtilis to high density on a putatively nonfermentative dicarboxylic acid substrate depends on a malolactate exchange at suboptimal protonmotive force.
Publication Type: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.;
Microbiology 1997 Aug ; (143 ( Pt 8)):2769-74.
Analysis of the Bacillus subtilis genome: cloning and nucleotide sequence of a 62 kb region between 275 degrees (rrnB) and 284 degrees (pai).
Oudega B ,Koningstein G ,Rodrigues L ,de Sales Ramon M ,Hilbert H ,Düsterhöft A ,Pohl TM ,Weitzenegger T ,
Department of Molecular Microbiology, BioCentrum Amsterdam, Faculty of Biology, Vrije Universiteit, The Netherlands. firstname.lastname@example.org
In the framework of the international project aimed at the sequencing of the Bacillus subtilis genome, five DNA fragments in the region between rrnB (275 degrees) and pai (284 degrees) were cloned by inverse and combinatorial long-range PCR and their nucleotide sequences were determined and analysed. Together these sequences constituted a contig of 62229 bp. On the basis of the position of Not1 and Stil restriction sites, the orientation and order of known genetic markers was determined to be pai (284 degrees)-degQ comQ comP comAA comAB-pbpD-kapB kinB patB-mcpB tipA mcpA tipB-rrnB (275 degrees). Fifty-four ORFs were detected. Thirteen of these coincided with known B. subtilis genes, and 41 new ORFs were found. Of the predicted new gene products, 12 showed no significant similarity to other known proteins, whereas ten showed strong similarity to proteins of other organisms with unknown function. Nineteen predicted proteins showed strong similarity to known proteins of other organisms, for instance a Na+/H+ antiporter system of Bacillus alcalophilus, a sugar transport system found in Mycoplasma genitalium, NADH-dependent butanol dehydrogenase of Clostridium acetobutylicum, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase A of B, subtilis, exo-1,4-alpha-glucosidase activity of Bacillus stearothermophilus and L-rhamnose isomerase of Escherichia coli.
Publication Type: Comparative Study;